Biology 101 pdfOn 29.10.2020 by Karg
Biology, the science of life, concentrates on the structure, function, distribution, adaptation, interactions, origins and evolution of living organisms, a grouping which encapsulates both plants and animals. Biology will encompass the principles of biology that include the structure and function of the cell to the complexities of current Ecological issues. This course is an excellent learning resource for the college or pre-college student. This logical and easy to understand class is divided into self-paced lessons, complimented with well-written text, diagrams, critical-thinking assignments and end of lesson review exams.
This course is a wonderful, stand-alone resource covering all concepts in biology, and can also be used as a comprehensive review or a personalized tutor.
By definition, biology is the science of life or living matter in all its many forms and phenomena. It takes a look at issues like the origins of life, growth and development, reproduction and structure.
Biology is further broken down into many different specialized fields, like microbiology, cellular biology, etc. Its also served as the arena for a great deal of controversy and debate such as Darwinism vs. Intelligent Design and the like. Unfortunately, the " science " of it has the potential to scare some people away.
Admittedly, being such a huge branch of science, it has the potential to be intimidating. However, if you can break biology down to its basics, and use that as a solid foundation on which to build upon, you'll never have to cower in confusion again! Biology is an ideal course for college and pre-college students looking for a logical and easy to understand class in a self-paced learning environment.
Of course, high school and college students aren't the only people who stand to benefit from this course. Successful completion doesn't require any previous medical or scientific background. In fact, anyone over the age of 13 years is encouraged to enroll.
You'll begin with an introduction to the science of biology and progress through the related chemistry, studying cells, taking a look at the science of genetics and the principles of evolution, plant life, animal life and the delicate system of ecology.
Even better, you won't have to spend an arm and a leg on textbooks or other materials. This class was designed as a stand-alone platform which covers all the major concepts of biology. Everything that you'll need in order to succeed is provided for you immediately upon enrollment. So, not only will you save time in the self-paced environment, you'll also be able to save money as well. Grades are awarded based on your performance on each of the lessons multiple choice and true or false quizzes which are worth between 20 and 25 points each.
A few lessons will also include a short assignment that is based on lesson facts and opinions that were expressed. By the time the class is over, you'll have gained a solid and clear understanding of the very science of our existence. You will be well equipped to further your studies in other scientific arenas as well.Attribution CC BY.
This book is the perfect amount of content for an introductory, non-majors biology course, especially those taught in a condensed, single-semester format.
All of the major units are covered without excessive detail and organized in a logical Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less. I did not come across any profoundly inaccurate statements but found many topics are oversimplified. The text focuses more on fundamental principles but adds new research into just about each section. Usually there is not enough content within the text on these newer topics and gaps would need to be filled in by the instructor. Vocabulary is suitably defined throughout the text and topics are kept well separated by headings to provide natural breakpoints in content.
Each section is relatively the same length and appropriately longer or shorter when necessary. It is easy to select the desired content by chapter and sub-section.
I did not run into any broken links. The search function was easy to use and very reliable. There are not many cultural or historical references. The text fails to provide examples that break the stereotypical pattern of scientists and does not introduce students to scientists from different cultures. There is no reference to even general research ethics or examples of current bioethical concerns.
A good choice for a non-major or survey course in Introductory Biology. I just used it for the first time this past semester and plan to continue using it in future iterations of the course. This textbook covers all of the major areas in basic biology: the chemistry of life, cell respiration, photosynthesis, cell structure, genetics, evolution, cell division, biotechnology, species diversity, body systems, and ecology. The concepts Comprehensiveness rating: 5 see less. The concepts are described at the appropriate depth for an introductory biology course, such as Human Biology.When you look at a globe, you can see that nearly three quarters of the Earth's surface is covered with water.
Scientists believe life on Earth got its start in the ocean, and gradually adapted to life on land. Some land-based organisms eventually returned to the water, like dolphins and whales.
Tiny ocean plants, called phytoplankton, produce most of the oxygen in the air we breathe. When producing oxygen, these plants soak up carbon dioxide, removing this gas from the air. The ocean is always in motion: currents move water around the globe. Water evaporates and rises into the atmosphere where it will eventually fall as rain and snow. Cold water sinks in the ocean, warm water rises, and this constant movement distributes heat and nutrients around the globe.
In this course, you will learn about life in the ocean depths, at the Polar extremes, in coral reefs, estuaries, and in the open sea. You will learn about plants large and small, marine birds, reptiles, invertebrates and fish.
You will learn how all these organisms connect with each other in the marine biome, and what threats are facing these ecosystems. Not all organisms can live in a high salinity environment. People, for example, can't survive in saltwater. Since you have no special adaptations to remove salt, if you drink too much seawater, your kidneys will try to flush the excess salt out as quickly as possible through urine, and you would lose more water than you originally drank, leaving you dehydrated.
If you didn't correct the situation by replacing fluids with fresh non salty water, your organs would eventually shut down and you would die.
Living in the ocean requires special adaptations, like a tolerance for salt or a way to remove the excess effectively, the ability to move through the water, find food, hide from predators, and locate a mate. Once these distant relatives weren't able to reproduce with one another, they became entirely different species. Scientists study all the different organisms existing today and analyze the traits that they have in common to group them into families.
Understanding the relationships between species has helped scientists derive useful medicines from natural sources, like a substance in horseshoe crabs that is now used in leukemia treatments. Join: Marine Biology Taking multiple courses?
Save with our platinum program. Students have taken this course. Course Description. Marine biology is the science of saltwater and everything that lives, moves, and filters through it. The word "marine" in this sense refers specifically to saltwater that you find in oceans, not freshwater, which is found in lakes.
On land, we tend to think that ecosystems develop in certain geographical areas, but in the ocean, distance doesn't matter as much as depth. The ocean environment changes as you move deeper into the water.
It becomes colder and darker. The pressure is higher and there is less oxygen dissolved in the water.Plants are an incredibly important kingdom of organisms.
They are multicellular organisms with the amazing ability to make their own food from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. They provide the foundation of many food webs and animal life would not exist if plants were not around. The study of plants is known as botany and in this introduction to plants we look at key topics such as the process of photosynthesis, different types of plants and the different parts of a plant such as roots, stems and leaves.
The sugars produced through photosynthesis provide plants with the energy to survive, grow and reproduce. As plants grow they become a food source for animals and other organisms. There are overspecies of plants currently on Earth and the majority of them produce flowers and fruit for reproduction. Plants that produce flowers belong to a group called angiosperms. Other woody plants include a group known as the gymnosperms.
This group includes pine trees and their relatives plus other non-flowering trees. Less advanced plants include ferns, lycophytes and mosses. Plants made the move from water to land around million years ago. Living on land is significantly different to living on water and plants have had to make serious changes to their body plans in order survive on land.
Land plants separated their body plans into roots, stems and leaves. Roots absorb water and nutrients from soil, stems transfer materials between roots and leaves, and leaves produce sugars that provide the plant with energy to survive. The process is simply a series of chemical reactions, probably the most important chemical reactions of Earth.
The green color of plants is caused by a molecule called chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll a has the ability to absorb light energy from the sun.
The energy that is absorbed is used to force reactions with water and carbon dioxide. The result of these reactions is the production sugars and oxygen gas. Photosynthesis takes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, converts it into sugar and releases oxygen back into the atmosphere.
Over time photosynthesis changed the atmosphere of the Earth by increasing the amount of oxygen in the air. A critical step in the evolution of current plant species was the evolution of vascular tissue.
Concepts of Biology
Like humans have vascular tissue that transports blood through our bodies, the majority of species of plants have vascular tissue that transports water and nutrients around their bodies. This meant plants were unable to grow very large because diffusion is not efficient enough to support large plants. There are still many species on non-vascular plants but the vast majority of plant species contain vascular tissue.
Non-vascular plants include organisms such as mosses and liverworts. Some biologists also consider the green algae to be non-vascular plants. Because non-vascular plants rely on diffusion to absorb water they are typically found in moist environments. More primitive vascular plants include lycophytes and ferns.Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology: Crash Course A&P #1
These two groups reproduce with spores rather than seeds and are unable to produce wood. Gymnosperms and angiosperms are the two most recently evolved groups of vascular plants.
They can both produce wood and reproduce with seeds rather than spores. Plants have a relatively simple body plan. A plant can be split into two sections: the underground system known as roots and the above ground system referred to as shoots. The shoots typically include stemsbranches and leaves. The evolution of roots was key to the success of plants on land.Sign in.
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This introduction to genetics takes you through the basic components of genetics such as DNA, genes, chromosomes and genetic inheritance. Genetics is built around molecules called DNA. DNA molecules hold all the genetic information for an organism. It provides cells with the information they need to perform tasks that allow an organism to grow, survive and reproduce. A gene is one particular section of a DNA molecule that tells a cell to perform one specific task.
Heredity is what makes children look like their parents. During reproduction, DNA is replicated and passed from a parent to their offspring. This inheritance of genetic material by offspring influences the appearance and behavior of the offspring. The environment that an organism lives in can also influence how genes are expressed. DNA is the cornerstone of genetics and is the perfect place to start for an introduction to genetics. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid and it is the molecule that holds the genetic information for a cell and an organism.
A DNA molecule contains a code that can be used by a cell to express certain genes. Specific sections of a DNA molecule provides the information to build specific proteins which can then be used by a cell to express the desired gene. A DNA molecule is a nucleic acid, one of the four molecules of life.
Online Class: Biology 101
It comes in the form of a long, linear molecule referred to as a strand. In eukaryotic cellsDNA is found in the nucleus as a tightly coiled double helix. DNA molecules are replicated during cell division. When a cell divides, the two new cells contain all the same DNA that the original cell had. In sexual reproduction with two parents, half of the DNA of the offspring is provided by each of the parents. A gene is a specific segment of a DNA molecule that holds the information for one specific protein.
DNA molecules have a unique code for each gene which codes for their specific protein. Genes are the basic unit of heredity. The genes of an individual are determined by their parent or parents. A bacteria that is born by one parent cell splitting into two cells and has the exact same genes as their one parent cell.
A human, on the other hand, has two copies of each gene — one set from their mother and a second set from their father. Different forms of the same gene are called alleles. For each gene, a human can have two different alleles or two of the same alleles — one from each parent. Physical traits such as eye color or height are often determined by the combination of multiple genes.
The environment an individual lives in also impacts how genes are expressed. A chromosome is a structure made from tightly packed strands of DNA and proteins called histones. Two chromatids join together to form a chromosome.
Chromosomes are formed in the nucleus of a cell when a cell is dividing.International and local horse racing events, greyhounds, and harness racing for the UK, Ireland, Australia and many other countries are there for you to pick. Just to mention a few important betting packages you can choose, we name the Metropolitan one and the non-metro selected horse racing events, where you can win the highest dividend of three total national totes (Tote Win).
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